Adding Hope to the Therapeutic Mix Can Empower Persons with Parkinson's Disease

23 March 2023

Healthcare professionals recommend adding “hopamine” as a prerequisite for personalized medicine

Based on the personal experiences of Marina Noordegraaf, a commentary published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, proposes that adding “hopamine” to the therapeutic mix can contribute to the empowerment of persons with Parkinson's disease. It also provides practical recommendations for how medical professionals can introduce the concept of “hopamine” in daily clinical practice.

When Marina Noordegraaf was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease at age 49, she noticed when it came to treatment decisions, she sometimes felt powerless. She observed that she herself played an active role in communicating her hopes and wishes to her healthcare professionals, which were not automatically taken into account. She took back control by taking her own hope seriously, prescribing her own recipe of “hopamine,” a self-invented word representing the uniquely personal set of hopes, desires, experiences, and skills of each individual with Parkinson’s disease, which is caused by a dopamine deficit.

Marina Noordegraaf, MSc, together with a team of healthcare professionals at Radboud University Medical Centre in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, led by Professor Bastiaan R. Bloem, MD, PhD, recognized the importance of conveying the message of hopamine to the broader Parkinson’s world. In a commentary published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, the authors propose that adding hopamine to the therapeutic mix can contribute to the empowerment of persons with Parkinson's disease. They also provide practical recommendations for how medical professionals can introduce the concept of hopamine in daily clinical practice.

Caption: The pillbox containing hopamine symbolizes the crucial need to address the issue of hope on a personalized basis for each individual living with Parkinson’s disease, starting immediately from the diagnosis onwards and redrafting this during the constantly changing course of Parkinson’s disease. Credit: Marina Noordegraaf.

A recipe for hopamine might look as follows, according to first author and person with Parkinson's Marina Noordegraaf: "I hope to see my children grow up. If I cycle on my spinning bike for half an hour every day – which I desire because there is evidence it might positively influence the course of my Parkinson’s, and which is within my reach because the spinning bike was only $30 and is patiently waiting for me at my bedside every morning when I wake up – I hope it will slow down my Parkinson’s progression and enable me to see my children grow up."

Caption: Marina Noordegraaf proudly presenting the first release of her book Detours Through the Parkinsonian Brain (Dutch edition), April 2022. Credit: Marina Noordegraaf.

Parkinson’s is a complex disease with variations in presentation for different individuals. In addition to different symptoms, every person with Parkinson’s has different hopes, wishes and abilities. Therefore, in order to formulate a personalized care plan, healthcare professionals need to look through both the dopamine and the hopamine lens to see the person with Parkinson’s as a whole.

Co-author Sanne van den Berg, PhD, of Radboud University Medical Centre in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, commented: "Marina, who passed away in October 2022, was a fierce advocate for incorporating lived-experience of persons with Parkinson’s in both research and daily care. As part of her legacy, we hope the message of hopamine will support persons with Parkinson’s and their healthcare professionals to truly co-create personalized care."

Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive disorder that affects movement, muscle control, and balance. It is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder affecting about 3% of the population by the age of 65 and up to 5% of individuals over 85 years of age.

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“Hopamine as Personalized Medicine for Persons with Parkinson’s Disease,” by Marina A. Noordegraaf, Sanne W. van den Berg, and Bastiaan R. Bloem ( published in the Journal of Parkinson’s Disease, Volume 13, Issue 2 (March 2023) by IOS Press. It is openly available at

To request additional information contact Diana Murray, IOS Press, at +1 718-640-5678 or Journalists wishing to interview the authors should contact Professor Bas Bloem at


Marina Noordegraaf was a scientist, business owner and person with Parkinson's. She wrote a blog about the power of communicating meaning to increase knowledge and understanding. As a patient researcher, she started writing about life with Parkinson's disease after she was diagnosed at age 49. Marina has published Detours Through the Parkinsonian Brain, a book full of tips from individuals impacted by Parkinson’s to recognize, discuss and circumvent thinking obstacles. She became seriously ill in 2022 and passed away in October of that year. 


The Journal of Parkinson’s Disease (JPD) is dedicated to providing an open forum for original research in basic science, translational research and clinical medicine that will expedite our fundamental understanding and improve treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The journal is international and multidisciplinary and aims to promote progress in the epidemiology, etiology, genetics, molecular correlates, pathogenesis, pharmacology, psychology, diagnosis, and treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It publishes research reports, reviews, short communications, and letters-to-the-editor and offers very rapid publication and an affordable open access option. JPD has a 2021 Journal Impact Factor of 5.520 according to Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate, 2022) and is published by IOS Press. 


IOS Press is an independent international scientific, technical, medical (STM) publishing house established in 1987 in Amsterdam. We produce around 90 journals and 70 books annually in a broad range of subject categories, primarily specializing in health and life sciences (including neurosciences, medical informatics, cancer research, and rehabilitation) and computer sciences (including artificial intelligence, data science, and semantic web). In addition, we offer specialized services that support scientific advancement.